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History of artificial satellitesBOOK FOR
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pXiii to XVMany people have helped me enormously: Richard Obermann, who patiently read many proposals and early drafts; Trish Hoard, who gave a friend's support; Nan Heneson, who edited sections and gave advice.David Whalen provided much informed discussion on the subject of communication satellites and shared information he had gathered for his doctoral thesis from the NASA History Office and George Washingtoton University.Jim Harford allowed me to see an early draft of a chapter of his book about Sergei Korolev and shared an anecdote about Korolev that I have reproduced in Chapter 1.Milton Rosen allowed me to interview him about his days on the Vanguard project, found old papers for me, and gave me a copy of his book on Viking and a copy of Vanguard - A History. Both were of great help.Bill Pickering and John Townsend patiently explained their days with Vanguard and Explorer and took my phone calls when I was stuck on some detail.Roger Harvey, an amateur astronomer and "Moonwatcher," gave me the inspiration for the title of the book. He, Henry Fliegel, and Florence Hazeltine responded to an advertisement for Moonwatchers and told me of their experiences as members of the program.For the navigation section, a particular acknowledgment of Bill Guier and George Weiffenbach is gladly given.Thanks to Bill Guier for meeting me at APL and for the hours of interviews and for patiently and repeatedly explaining details of physics. Thanks to George Weiffenbach and his wife for traveling to Providence, Rhode Island, to meet me for a weekend and for the hours of interviews, dinners, and lunch discussions; for the participation in phone calls too numerous to mention; and for reading and checking the passages concerning physics.Thanks to members of the Transit team for their time. Bob Danchik, Bill Guier, George Weiffenbach, Lee Pryor, Carl Bostrom, Henry Elliott, Lee Dubois, Charles Pollow, Laurence Rueger, Tom Stansill, Russ Bauer, Charles Bitterli, Harold Black, Ben Elder, Eugene Kylie, Edward Marshall, George Martin, Barry Oakes, Charles Owen, Henry Riblet, Ed Westerfield.All of the above except Bill Guier, George Weiffenbach, Tom Stansill, Eugene Kylie, Charles Bitterli, and Henry Riblet spent a day in a conference room with me at the Applied Physics Laboratory near Baltimore, Maryland.What they said, which I recorded on several hours of tape, is scattered in numerous small details throughout the chapters of the navigation section. The day was invaluable because it gave a wonderful sense of the camaraderie and creative tensions that existed between them and of the intensity with which they must have worked on Transit.Their faces and voices when they spoke of Richard Kershner, the team leader, and of Frank McClure, provided the information -- if something as fleeting and intangible as facial expressions can be called information -- on which I based comments about McClure and Kershner. Both died at comparatively young ages, and their technical writings give little away about their personalities.Of the people at the roundtable, Bob Danchik and Lee Prior subsequently extracted unclassified reports from amongst classified documents in the APL archives. They also responded to my many phone calls as I struggled with the intricacies of the subject.Thanks to Carl Bostrom for drawing my attention to the poem that completes the navigation section.Thanks also to Henry Elliot for locating the papers he had saved from his days with the Transit program and for the interview at his home in Washington, DC.Thanks to Eugene Kylie for traveling into Washington to discuss the Transit receivers over lunch.Tom Stansill generously gave telephone interviews and mailed me old brochures and papers about the early Transit receivers.Thanks to Charles Bitterli for the interview and lunch at Silver Springs, Maryland, and for anecdotes about the coding of the early algorithms.John O'Keefe provided reminiscences about uncovering the pear-shaped nature of Earth, the presatellite days, and his impressions of Bill Guier and George Weiffenbach. And thanks to his wife for the ride back to the metro and stories of her research into Emily Dickinson's life and work.Gary Weir, an historian at the Naval Historical Center, in Washington DC, discretely steered me in the right direction on the subject of Polaris.Thanks to Commander William Craft, of the United States Naval Academy, in Annapolis, for some general discussions about navigation and the use to which the U.S. Navy put Transit.Thanks also to Brad Parkinson, who headed the development of the Global Positioning Satellite.Group Captain David Broughton, director of the Royal Institute of Navigation, pointed me in the direction of British officers who were once connected with Special Projects and who still feel the need for discretion.Phil Alberts, the archivist at the Applied Physics Laboratory, helped me in working with the APL's archives, and Elaine Frazier assisted me in extracting information from the achives.The meteorology section would have been impossible without the hours of interviews with Verner Suomi.Dave Johnson was invaluable in helping me to put the early days of meteorology satellites into context. He and Pierre Morrel helped to explain some basic ideas of meteorology, and if their efforts failed, it is my fault.Thanks also to Tery Gregory for diving into the basements of the University of Wisconsin in search of Professor Suomi's files.Thanks to R. Cargill Hall for drawing my attention to his paper on the interrelationships between the IGY and President Eisenhower's national security policy.John Pierce allowed me to interview him, found old papers and copies of books, and gave me a ride back into Palo Alto. Thanks for all of these.At the Hughes Aircraft Company, Pat Sinclair ferreted through company records and provided leads. Bob Roney handed over copies of papers he had cherished since his days on the Syncom project. Harold Rosen explained something of his participation in the Syncom project and tried to make communications satellites less of a mystery to me.A special thanks to John Rubel and his wife, who gave me a room for a week in their delightful home outside Santa Fe, which allowed me to rifle through John Rubel's extensive records of his days as deputy director of defense research and engineering. These were documents which he has had declassified since leaving the Pentagon.Finally, thanks to Bill Frucht and Sally Gouverneur, my editor and agent.Xiii to XV
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